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Sanday, Peggy Reeves 1981 Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality, Cambridge Univ. Pr., Cambridge.
NOTE: This extract is included as an essential reading for transforming the world. You are requested to purchase the book yourself as it is, without question, essential reading material.
In this book, Professor Peggy Sanday provides a ground-breaking examination of power and dominance in male-female relationships. How does the culturally approved interaction between the sexes originate? Why are women viewed as a necessary part of political, economic, and religious affairs in some societies but not in others? Why do some societies clothe sacred symbols of creative power in the guise of one sex and not of the other? Professor Sanday offers solutions to these cultural puzzles by using cross-cultural research on over I 50 tribal societies. She systematically establishes the full range of variation in male and female power roles and then suggests a theoretical framework for explaining this variation. Rejecting the argument of universal female subordination, Professor Sanday argues that male dominance is not inherent in human relations but is a solution to various kinds of cultural strain. Those who are thought to embody, be in touch with, or control the creative forces of nature are perceived as powerful. In isolating the behavioral and symbolic mechanisms that institute male dominance, Professor Sanday shows that a people's secular power roles are partly derived from ancient concepts of power, as exemplified by their origin myths. Power and dominance are further determined by a people's adaptation to their environment, social conflict, and emotional stress. This is illustrated through case studies of the effects of European colonialism, migration, and food stress, and supported by numerous statistical associations between sexual inequality and various cultural stresses. In the Epilogue Professor Sanday examines the roots of Western male dominance and suggests that the forces contributing to the predominantly masculine system of beliefs characteristic of the Judaic and Christian traditions are similar to the forces that accompanied the development of male dominance in other cultural traditions. Female Power and Male Dominance provides a new explanation of the origins and perpetuation of sexual inequality by using large-scale cross-cultural research on tribal societies. Yet the relevance of its discoveries extends to modern society, revealing the deep psychological and social roots of current sex-role expectations.
Cover design by Marsha Austin Cover photograph by Lester Wunderman of Dogon Primordial Couple in the Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Lester Wunderman, 1977.
"My child, the obi is the head of the men, and I am the head of the women. I and my cabinet represent the women in any important town gatherings and deliberations. If decisions arrived at are such that the womenfolk are to be told about them, I get a woman to sound the gong to assemble the women. On less important occasions, my cabinet members pass the word around among the women by word of mouth."Igbo female monarch speaking to Kamene Okonjo, a sociologist
"We are not so happy as we were before... Our grievance is that the land is changed - we are all dying." Igbo women speaking to British colonial officials
Father, mother, lover,friend:
The Mbuti Minimal differentiation of sex roles also exists among the Mbuti, who form the largest single group of pygmy hunters and gatherers in Africa. Their habitat and their heaven is the Ituri Forest. The Mbuti have no creation myth per se. The forest is their godhead, and different individuals address it as "father," "mother," "lover," and/or "friend." The Mbuti say that the forest is everything: the provider of food, shelter, warmth, clothing, and affection. Each person and animal is endowed with some spiritual power that "derives from a single source whose physical manifestation is the forest itself." Disembodied spirits deriving from this same source of power are also believed to inhabit the forest; they are considered to be independent manifestations of the forest.22 The forest lives for the Mbuti. It is both natural and supernatural, something that is depended upon, respected, trusted, obeyed, and loved. 23 The forest is a good provider. At all times of the year men and women can gather an abundant supply of mushrooms, roots, berries, nuts, herbs, fruits, and leafy vegetables. The forest also provides animal food. There's little division of labor by sex. The hunt is frequently a joint effort. A man is not ashamed to pick mushrooms and nuts if he finds them or to wash and clean a baby. In general, leadership is minimal and there is no attempt to control or dominate either the geographical or human environment. Decision making is by common consent: Men and women have equal say because hunting and gathering are both important to the economy.25 The forest is the ultimate authority. It expresses its feelings through storms, falling trees, poor hunting all of which are taken as signs of its displeasure. But often the forest remains silent, and this is when the people must sound out its feelings through discussion. Diversity of opinion may be expressed, but prolonged disagreement is considered to be "noise" and offensive to the forest. Certain individuals may be recognized as having the right and the ability to interpret the pleasure of the forest. In this sense there is individual authority, which simply means effective participation in discussions. The three major areas for discussion are economic, ritual, and legal matters having to do with dispute settlement. Participation in discussions is evenly divided between the sexes and among all adult age levels.26 The avoidance of differentiation between the sexes is consistent with the principle of egalitarianism that rules Mbuti life in the forest. Some sexual differentiation, however, occurs in the emotional connotations associated with mother and father and is acted out in one of the most important Mbuti ceremonies. Motherhood is associated with food and love, and fatherhood with authority, although fathers physically nurture their children. The mother is regarded as the source of food; all food that is collected or hunted is cooked and distributed by women. Hungry children look to their mothers for food, not to their fathers.27 Sexual differentiation is acted out in the molimo ceremony, which is held irregularly, when someone dies or when conditions of life are generally poor. Its goal is to awaken and "to rejoice the forest." The festival symbolizes the triumph of life over death. The central ceremonial symbols are the molimo fire and the molimo trumpets. Both are associated with life, regeneration, and fertility. Both are believed to have been once owned by women and stolen from them by the men. The trumpet is sometimes referred to as an animal" of the forest: It is symbolically fed, it is passed through the fire, and during a dance it is used by a young man to imitate the male and female parts in the sexual act. The trumpet is the only sign of the presence of a supernatural power during the molimo festival. The trumpet is supposed to sing and to pass on the song of the Mbuti into the forest. It is kept out of the sight of women and children, who are supposedly forbidden to see it. The Mbuti do not consider the trumpet to be sacred in itself-, it is simply a vehicle for transferring power between the Mbuti and the forest. 28 The molimo festival includes two rituals that separate male from female. Both focus on an old woman who symbolically kills and scatters the molimo fire (the symbol of life) and later ties all the men together with a roll of twine. The old woman dances the fire dance led by a chorus of women singing molimo songs (supposedly known only by men). The men follow in obedient chorus. The high point of the dance comes when the old woman jumps into the flames, whirls around, and scatters the molimo fire in all directions within the circle of men surrounding her. The men, still singing, gather the scattered embers, throw them back onto the coals, and dance while the flames begin to rise again as if they had brought the fire back to life. The old woman repeats her dance, each time seeming to stamp the fire out of existence, after which the dance of the men gives it new life. Finally the old woman and the women leave the scene. A little later the old woman comes back alone. The men continue singing while she ties them all together, looping a roll of twine around their necks. Once all are tied they stop singing. The men then admit to having been bound and to the necessity of giving the woman something as a token of their defeat, so that she'll let them go. After a certain quantity of food has been agreed upon, the old woman unties each man. No one attempts to untie himself, but as each man is untied he begins to sing once more. This signifies that the molimo is free. The old woman receives her gifts, and before leaving several weeks later, she goes to every man, giving him her hand to touch as though it were some kind of blessing. These are indeed fascinating acts. Colin Turnbull, the major ethnographer of the Mbuti, suggests that in the fire dance women assert their prior claim to the fire of life and their ability to destroy and extinguish life. However, he asks, was the old woman really destroying the fire? Perhaps when she kicked the fire in all directions among the men she was giving it to them, to gather, rebuild, and revitalize the fire with the dance of life.29 In discussing these ceremonies, Turnbull suggested to me the possibility that they symbolized the transference of power from women to men. As he put it, "Women have the power which they give to men for them to control" (personal communication). If this is indeed the case, and it is difficult to be sure, then whereas in some societies men take power from women (see the description of Mundurucu in the next chapter), Mbuti women give power to men. The Mbuti attitude toward blood is similar to that of the Semang. Blood symbolizes both life and death. Menstrual blood in particular symbolizes life. Between husband and wife it is not a frightening thing as it is in so many societies. The blood that comes for the first time to the young girl comes as a gift, received with gratitude and rejoicing, because she is now a potential mother and can proudly take a husband. The girl enters seclusion, taking with her all of her friends. Here they celebrate the happy event and are taught the arts and crafts of motherhood by an old and respected relative. They learn to live like adults and to sing the songs of adult women. Pygmies from all around come to pay their respects, because for them this occasion is "one of the happiest, most joyful occasions in their lives.
The bases for female political and economic power and authority
Until recently, the prevailing consensus among anthropologists was that male dominance is universal. It has been noted, for example, "that all contemporary societies are to some extent male-dominated," and that "sexual asymmetry is presently a universal fact of human social life. "l The more extreme expression of this underlying premise contends that "male supremacism" is "well-nigh universal" and "not a shred of evidence, historical or contemporary, supports the existence of a single society in which women controlled the political and economic lives of men."2 This consensus is a reaction to the nineteenth-century argument proposed by Johann Bachofen and Lewis Henry Morgan that there was a time in human cultural evolution when women ruled. Bachofen based his beliefs on archeological remains indicating the importance of female goddesses and queens and on the mythology of ancient civilizations in which females were depicted as powerful. Morgan based his argument on his knowledge of societies like the Iroquois where, he argued, women were in charge of the economic arena, descent was reckoned through women (called matriliny), and women played a crucial role in ritual and political activities. Because the matriarchy theory has been resurrected as a historical fact by contemporary feminists, anthropologists have searched for societies "in which women have publicly recognized power and authority surpassing that of men. "3 Finding no society in which women occupy the main positions of leadership, anthropologists argue that male dominance is universal. 7 There is a certain bias to this point of view, a bias that is understandable given the Western equation of dominance with public leadership. By defining dominance differently, one can show that in many societies male leadership is balanced by female authority For example, among the Ashanti, Iroquois, and Dahomeans, though women were not as visible as men in external public affairs, their right to veto male actions suggests a bipartite system of checks and balances in which neither sex dominated the other. Alice Schlegel makes this point when she notes that the power of Iroquois women to make or replace political appointments, to veto warfare, and to control appropriations is "like many of the powers vested in contemporary positions of centralized authority, from the United States presidency on down to the local level! 114 Karen Sacks adds that to view male and female authority in societies like that of the Iroquois as unequal rather than different reflects a "state bias" in Western anthropological interpretation of pre-state politics. 5
The chapters of this section examine the bases for female political and economic power or authority. Power refers to "the ability to act effectively on persons or things, to take or secure favourable decisions which are not of right allocated to the individuals or their roles." Authority is defined as "the right to make a particular decision and to command obedience. 116 Economic power or authority refers to the ability or right to control the distribution of goods, food, or services beyond the household level. Political power or authority refers to the ability or right to control or influence group decision making, including the assignment of leadership roles beyond the household level. Females achieve economic and political power or authority when environmental or historical circumstances grant them economic autonomy and make men dependent on female activities. Female economic and political power or authority is ascribed as a natural right due the female sex when a long-standing magico-religious association between maternity and fertility of the soil associates women with social continuity and the social good. The rights and duties attached to this emphasis give women formal power and control at the local level as well as the right to influence male actions and decision making beyond the local level. Male power and authority, on the other hand, is part of the social and ritual equation of hunting, warfare, fertility, social continuity, and the social good. The rights and duties associated with this emphasis give men formal power and control at the local and non-local levels. These rights and duties, however, do not necessarily exclude women from the realm of control.
The ascribed bases for female economic and political authority
Irrespective of cultural configuration, of the ascribed or achieved bases for female power, women rarely hold the focal leadership roles. Women either delegate leadership positions to the men they select or such positions are assigned by men alone. In those cases where women delegate such authority, they retain the power to veto the actions of those they have selected. A question frequently asked of anthropologists is why women would choose to delegate leadership rather than seize such authority for themselves. The answer lies in the proposition, presented in Chapter 4, that it is more efficient for women to delegate than to monopolize power. Since women are the potential bearers of new additions to the population, it would scarcely be expedient to place them on the front line at the hunt and in warfare. In addition, there are such questions as: What would there be for men to do if women hunted, warred,'or ruled? How would men acquire the "reason for being" that comes to women automatically? In certain sectors of our own society and others, these questions are easily answered: Men gamble. Because men must sometimes gamble with their lives, power and prestige are the incentive that motivates them to hunt and defend territory and are the reward for being very nearly expendable in terms of the group's ultimate survival. In many societies, as bearers of children and nurturers of plant life, women occupy a focal position in the realm of final authority. "Whether the male chief is big or small," say the women of a West African female solidarity group, "what matters is that he was given birth by a woman. "7 Such women protest a chiefs action by treating him like a child. They either rely on shame or ridicule to get their way or, if pushed to an extreme, will march scantily clad with bared breasts while men stand by in a state of embarrassed silence and passivity, as if they had been overcome by a superior military force. This strategy can only be employed successfully among peoples who believe in the power and invincibility of womanhood. The power and invincibility of womanhood underlies the operation of the "women's world" in West African dual-sex political systems. The importance of this world in the governance of everyday life is illustrated in the following statement made by the omu ("mother") of one of the Igbo political units in midwestern Nigeria mentioned in Chapter 4. In an interview with the omu, or Obamkpa, Kamene Okonjo asked, "Our Mother, what part do you play in the running of this town?" She replied:
My child, the obi is the head of the men, and I am the head of the women. I and my cabinet represent the women in any important town gatherings and deliberations. If decisions arrived at are such that the womenfolk are to be told about them, I get a woman (onye oga) to sound the gong (ekwe) to assemble the women. On less important occasions, my cabinet members pass the word around among the women by word of mouth. If there is drought, we curse whoever caused it. If there is sickness and people are dying, my cabinet goes naked in the night with live brands to , curse whoever brought it. If there is sickness in the next town, I do something with my cabinet to insure that sickness does not enter this town. There are medicines we make at the entrance to the town. These are just a few of my duties. I am the mother of the people, you know, and I have to insure in any way I can that they enjoy continued good health and happiness.11
In dual-sex political systems like Obamkpa each sex has its own autonomous sphere of authority and an area of shared responsibility. The relationships of the greatest solidarity are among men and among women. In other societies the village-level relationships of the greatest solidarity are among women or among persons related through women. Societies in which the primary solidarity relations involve women are frequently referred to as matrifocal. Comparing matrifocal societies in Southeast Asia, Nancy Tanner finds a commonality in the female role. Women are generally the producers and control economic resources. Kinswomen are in frequent contact through mutual aid groups. Women are decision makers and are at least as assertive as men. In all cases, women occupy central kin positions. The role of "mother" is ritually elaborated and is more important than the role of wife. Although the financial contribution of men, be they husbands, brothers, or sons, is important, women can effectively support and care for their children with very little input from men.9 The most persistent male-female bond in matrifocal societies is between mother and son. Sons are welcomed when they return from their external pursuits, but husbands are barely tolerated. Among the Atjehnese of Sumatra, Tanner says, husbands and fathers do not figure in women's image of the hereafter. Paradise is thought of as a place of abundance where women are reunited with their children and mothers. 10 In another Sumatran society (the Minangkabau), Tanner notes that heaven is thought to be beneath the sole of a mother's foot. The mythical queen mother of this group is referred to by a term that, literally translated, means "Own Mother." Her importance is celebrated in women's ceremonial dress, in weddings, and in parades. She had no husband, and her brother is not mentioned; her son, however, plays an important role in the tales about her." The importance of women in the Seneca origin myth and their centrality in Iroquoian ritual, economic, and political affairs were noted in Chapter 1. During the two centuries of the Colonial period, Anthony F. C. Wallace says, the Iroquois were a population divided into two parts: sedentary females and nomadic males. The men were absent in small or large groups for months or even years on hunting, trading, war, and diplomatic expeditions. Although their activities were peripheral to the village affairs (which women largely ran), men were responsible for the economic and political welfare of the Six Nations. 12 Iroquoian female power was part of a centuries-old tradition - based first on custom and later codified in the Constitution of the Five Nations - in which women were officially proclaimed the progenitors of the people and the owners of the land and the soil. Although they bore a resemblance to the Hebrew tribes in the minds of early missionaries, the Iroquois were not a migrating people; they did not move en masse from one territory to another. For centuries they remained settled in the general area where they first cultivated what they called "the three sisters" (corn, beans, and squash). The power of women and their title to the land evolved naturally from cultural circumstances in which wandering men followed game and stationary women developed early agriculture. During the early Colonial period, the Iroquois could be described as matrifocal at the village level and patrifocal at the level of League and inter-village affairs. Before the establishment of the League and the tribal units that united to form the League, the Iroquois could perhaps be described as matriarchal, if this term is redefined to mean female economic and ritual centrality and not female rule. Archeological excavations of pre-Iroquoian village sites show that they were unfortified, suggesting that if there was an emphasis on warfare, it lacked major economic motivation, and conquest was an unknown objective. In these sites, horticulture clearly takes precedence over fishing and hunting, which would have been male activities. Houses contained several hearths and appeared to be early prototypes of the longhouse, in which families related through women lived. One can infer from this evidence that the village was the primary sociopolitical unit and that matrifocality superseded patrifocality. 13 When matrifocal activities override the importance of male activities and correspond to the largest socio-political unit, the use of the term matriarchy is appropriate in order to signify the greater importance of females. The evidence for the primacy of matrifocality among some of the prehistoric Iroquoian ethnic units is strong. The same possibility is posed by the peripherality of the male in the Southeast Asian societies mentioned previously. Unfortunately, in these cases and in so many others where female economic and ritual centrality is evident, we do not have the archeological evidence that would allow for the reconstruction of prehistoric patterns showing that the primary domain of influence may have once coincided with a group of economically self-sufficient women. If prior matriarchies did exist, they were probably a consequence of the evolution of plant domestication from the plant-gathering activities of women. This would have given women economic and ritual centrality and, hence, a primary voice in decision making. As with the Iroquois, the position of Ashanti women can be traced to a long-standing ritual tie with the soil, which may have been based on indigenous early farming. The basis of the Ashanti regard for women (described in Chapter 1) can be seen in their ritual interconnection of earth-life-ancestors-blood-females. The Ashanti believe that the lineage and the clan that incorporates several lineages is synonymous with blood and that only women can transmit blood to descendants. 14 It is said that some Ashanti originated from the earth. The earth is believed to be filled with the spirits of the departed forebearers of the clan. These spirits are thought to be the real landowners, who still continue to take a lively interest in the land from which they had their origin or that they once owned. The Golden Stool (the male symbol of leadership), which is believed to have originated from the sky, cannot come into direct contact with the earth; it is always placed upon an elephant's skin. The feet of the king of Ashanti can never touch the ground, "lest a great famine should come upon the nation." He is always followed by a servant bearing a spare pair of sandals, in case the band across the instep of those he is wearing breaks. " There is a sacred grove in a forest that is marked as the most hallowed spot in all Ashanti territory. At this spot, it is said, some clan forebearers belonging to certain ruling clans "came forth from the ground, and settling near by, increased and multiplied, learned to use fire and other arts, till eventually, compelled by increasing numbers, they scattered and became the clan or 'blood' from which the rulers of the united nation later chose their kings and queens." 16 Near this spot there are a number of mounds containing "ancient pottery" and "neolithic instruments." R. S. Rattray says that the whole of this area must "at some remote period, have been the site of a great settlement, larger by far than any Ashanti towns or villages of the present day." The names of the people supposed to have come from the ground of the sacred grove were given to Rattray by the Queen Mother. Some of them are the forebearers of the royal Oyoko clan. The notion that the forebearers of certain clans came forth out of a hole in the ground is a belief in many parts of Ashanti. Rattray thinks that the Ashanti adopted these beliefs from an indigenous people, because the Ashanti "are a people from the North and not the indigenous inhabitants of the country they now occupy."17 If the Ashanti did come from another land, they did so long ago, probably in a series of uncoordinated movements of related groups of people in response to the introduction, via maritime trade with the Americas, of new food crops. 18 Yams play an important part in Ashanti ritual and daily diet. Yams could have been introduced from the Americas or domesticated in West Africa. 19 Whether or not the Ashanti acquired yams or participated in the cultural tradition responsible for their domestication, all the evidence suggests an ancient tradition of farming. This tradition may account for their deification of the earth; or the personification of the earth may have been the motivation for domesticating plants. If people believe, as the Ashanti do, that the earth is the repository and the origin of their important ancestral spirits, they are likely to pay more attention to products of the earth.
To conclude, the ascribed basis for female power and authority in the secular domain is found in a ritual orientation to plants, the earth, maternity, and fertility. This orientation is probably part of a historical tradition that began when the detailed knowledge of wild plants led to simple farming. More than likely, women were responsible for this development. Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow say that there is little doubt that farming in the form of horticulture developed from the practice of gathering, and therefore it was the invention of women.20 The invention of domestication undoubtedly gave women the right to control the fruits of their efforts just as men controlled the product of the hunt. Peoples who carried their crops with them as they emigrated or who remained in an area where their ancestresses first experimented with plant domestication probably maintained the web of meanings that mediate female social and ritual authority. To break the equation of maternity with fertility of the soil would, in the minds of such peoples, threaten the wellspring of plant and human life. Maternity and fertility of the soil are equated because as women bring forth new life from their bodies, plants burst forth from the earth. The earth spirit is female; certain crops are revered and associated with children or women. It is said in some societies, for example, that yams are "like women, they give birth to children. "21 Yams are used in much of Ashanti ritual. Before tilling the soil, a farmer offers mashed yams sprinkled with the blood of a fowl to the earth spirit. Like the Ashanti, the Iroquois respected and revered the female virtues of food provision and the fertility of the earth, especially for corn, a crop that the Iroquois grew early in their culture history. In both societies, female secular power and authority are inseparable from the system of meanings in which the past is tied to the present, and the sources of life are tied to the reproductive and productive functions of women.
The case of the Abipon: female power and the hunter-warrior configuration
It would be misleading to assume that female economic and political rights are based solely on female social and ritual principles like those described in the previous section. In many societies it is clear that female influence is based on a sexual division of labor that gives women access to rights and duties and brings them economic self-sufficiency. Often ,in these cases, men are absent for long periods engaged in hunting, warfare, trading, or migrant labor. In the absence of males, the regulation and conduct of local affairs may be in the hands of women. The Abipon represent one of the most striking examples of female power in the face of male absence. While men hunted and warred, Abipon women did most of the work.22 Women were also almost solely responsible for the rites of propitiation involving the Abipon celestial supreme being called "Grandfather." The Abipon deserve attention not just because they exemplify female power in an outer-oriented society. Our knowledge of the Abipon comes largely from the work of Martin Dobrizhoffer, a Jesuit missionary who lived among them from 1750 to 1762. His book, published in 1784, is described as "one of the most famous monographs ever written on any South American tribe. Thus, Dobrizhoffer's description affords a rare glimpse of tribal life before prolonged European contact. The Abipon were one of many aboriginal tribes of the Gran Chaco, a vast plain 'm the center of the South American continent between the fringe of the Matto Grosso Plateau and the Argentine Pampa. This area is described as depressed, a dry country hardly suitable for human settlement were it not for the lagoons and water holes scattered throughout.24 The Spanish settled in the area during the sixteenth century, not because it had any special appeal, but because it was on the route leading to the silver and gold of western South America. For the Indians, the most important consequence of this contact was the introduction of the horse. The Abipon may have been the first Chaco Indians to turn Acquisition of the horse enabled them to fight the equestrian. 25 Spaniards on an equal footing. It also changed the aboriginal economy. Agriculture was abandoned and the Indians became expert cattle, sheep, and horse raiders. The Abipon stole thousands of cattle and horses from Spanish ranches. Dobrizhoffer reports that from some raids a warrior would come back with at least 400 horses, and that 100,000 horses were captured by the Abipon within about 50 years.26 Warfare and hunting consumed the lives of men. They were as successful in killing Spaniards, taking heads, scalping, or capturing slaves as they were at acquiring horses. They eluded Spanish retaliation because they were continually moving from place to place. Competition.was evident and there were clear distinctions between superior and lesser sorts. Dobrizhoffer refers to noblemen and noblewomen. Personal ornamentation signified distinctions in wealth. Men wore necklaces, women tattooed their faces, breasts, and arms. The number and variety of tattoo patterns indicated a woman's status. A woman with only three or four black lines on her face was either a captive or of low birth .27 Their wealth, social distinctions, and warlike nature might suggest that the Abipon would treat women as chattel, as did other equestrian societies described in the nineteenth century. For example Hoebel, who reconstructs the life of the equestrian Comanche in 1870, writes that women, horses, and dogs were classified as private property .28 This was emphatically not so with the Abipon. Abipon women were neither subordinated nor considered inferior. They were fierce, dominant, and, in their own sphere, as aggressive and competitive as were Abipon men. The activities of Abipon men and women usually did not overlap, except in the ritual sphere, where women were perhaps more important than men. Females were powerful both collectively and individually. In a vivid description of the cooperative work of the female collective, Dobrizhoffer says:
Above a hundred women often go out to distant plains together to collect various fruits, roots, colours, and other useful things, and remain four or eight days in the country, without having any male to accompany them on their journey, assist them in their Tabours, take care of the horses, or guard them amidst the perils of wild beasts, or of enemies. Those amazons are sufficient to themselves, and think they are safer alone. I never heard of a single woman being torn to pieces by a tiger, or bitten by a serpent, but I knew many men who were killed in both ways. 29
Although they frequently operated as a collective, this did not prevent women from engaging in bloody battles among themselves. A quarrel between two women or two sets of women who had independently arrived at separate decisions about certain events could degenerate into a blood bath in which all women participated. Men stood by, calmly watching these fights without interfering, because this was women's way. 30 Women would also, at times, inflict their blows on men and engage in ceremonial wrestling with other women. After a chief s son was born, the strongest woman in the camp would lead a group of girls in whipping all the men. The same strong woman would challenge all the "stout women" to wrestle.31 Dobrizhoffer uses the term horde to designate the group of families following a cacique or chief. A horde consisted of extended families, any group of which might leave a horde whenever it suited them to join some other chief. A chief was usually a man judged to be properly noble and warlike. His main task was to be the war leader. The position could be inherited or achieved through skill and valor. Females could and did become chiefs. Dobrizhoffer remarks:
I must not omit to mention that the Abipones do not scorn to be governed by women of noble birth; for at the time I resided in Paraguay, there was a highborn matron, to whom the Abipones gave the title Nelareycaee, and who numbered some families in her horde. Her origin, and the merits of her ancestors, procured her the veneration of others.32
Since families could break away from a horde and join another whenever they chose, it would appear that the "chief' was not powerful in the sense of controlling the actions of others. Much more influential were the "jugglers" (shamans). They were believed to have innumerable powers to inflict disease and death, cure, forsee the future, cause rain and tempests, call up the spirits of the dead, change into a "tiger," and handle snakes. Their power was acquired in a vision quest from a supernatural relative, or sky-being, called "Grandfather," who was associated with the Pleiades. jugglers accompanied all hunting and war expeditions. They advised on where to hunt and how to conduct a battle.33 A juggler could be of either sex, but females may have outnumbered males. Dobrizhoffer, at least, seemed quite impressed with the number of female jugglers: He says that they "abound to such a degree, that they almost outnumber the gnats of Egypt."34 Female jugglers formed groups, often led by an old woman. Their major task was to consult the "evil spirit," take charge of certain ceremonies in connection with "Grandfather," and conduct all mourning ceremonies. The highest-ranking female juggler was responsible for inaugurating a new chief. A female ' juggler was in charge of the ceremony that welcomed the Pleiades back when this constellation became visible in the southern sky during the month of May. It was believed that when the Pleiades could not be seen it was because "Grandfather" was sick. During the welcoming ceremony an old woman danced with a gourd rattle while "military trumpets" blared at intervals. She rubbed the thighs of some men with her gourds, and in the name of "Grandfather" promised them swiftness in hunting and warfare.35 It is not known what happened to the Abipon. In 1750 Dobrizhoffer says they numbered about 5,000. In 1767 they had been reduced to 2,000. According to Metraux, after the expulsion of the Jesuits the Abipon disappeared and ceased to play any historic role. 36 The advance of the military posts in the Chaco during the nineteenth century restricted their hunting grounds and forced numerous bands into submission. Many were slaughtered and others were absorbed into the Creole population.37
The achieved bases for female economic and political power
In foraging societies like that of the Abipon, women achieve power when social survival rests on their economic self-sufficiency as well as on the hunting activities of men. Although hunting is the most prestigious activity in these cases, the gathering activities of women often supply the bulk of the food. In addition, hunting success may depend on the knowledge women supply of the whereabouts of animals. For example, Patricia Draper, who accompanied !Kung women of the Kalahari Desert in Africa on gathering expeditions, describes the dependence of male hunters on the information women bring back about the "state of the bush." Although !Kung women do not hunt, they act as intelligence agents for the men. If on a gathering expedition women discover fresh tracks, they send an older child to deliver the report to the men in camp. Since women are skilled in reading the signs of the bush, upon their return to camp, men query them about evidence of game movements, the age of animal tracks they may have encountered, the location of water, and the like. All !Kung agree that meat is the most desirable and most prestigious food. But the hunters cannot always provide it, and the vegetable food gathered by women is the staple, contributing about 60% to 80% of the daily food intake by weight. In addition to demonstrating how important women's gathering activities are to male hunting, Draper challenges the common point of view that gathering is a monotonous routine requiring no more than subnormal intelligence. Successful gathering among the !Kung involves the ability to discriminate among hundreds of edible and inedible species of plants at various stages of growth. This kind of intelligence is fully as important to !Kung survival as the physical strength, dexterity, and endurance required for success in hunting.38 The foraging !Kung are described by Draper as sexually egalitarian. Draper says that !Kung females are autonomous and participate in group decisions because they do not need the assistance of men at any stage in the production of gathered foods. Nor do they need the permission of men to use any natural resources entering into this production. !Kung men and women live in a public world, sleeping and eating in a small circular clearing, within which all activities are visible. There are inherited positions, such as the "headman," among the !Kung, but these are said to be essentially empty of behavioral content.39 There are many similar examples of the self-sufficiency and autonomy of women in foraging societies. In some cases, women take over the hunting activities of men. Descriptions of female hunting in several North American Indian societies have been provided by Regina Flannery, Ruth Landes, and Louise Spindler. In the cases cited by them, certain females adopted "masculine styles" that they learned from men and performed out of necessity. When she lived among the Eastern Cree of the James Bay region of Canada during the summers of 1933 and 1935, Regina Flannery came to know several old women reputed to have been excellent hunters in the old days. They hunted either because of the illness or death of their male relatives or, as the women said but no man ever admitted, because of "just plain incompetence of the men at hunting. While living among the Mescalero Apache in the mountains of southeastern New Mexico, Flannery was told by a "shriveled-up, decrepit old woman" that in the past "young married women might go hunting with their husbands, not merely to accompany them, but actually to take part in the chase." Flannery found it hard to believe that such a woman "was once active and skilled enough to rope a buffalo, wind the rope around a tree, and kill the animal with an axe." However, she received corroborating information from others that in the past this was not an uncommon feat for women who, if they needed food, would kill whatever animals they came upon.41
Ruth Landes and Louise Spindler were informed about similar customs by Ojibwa and Menomini women. Landes describes Ojibwa women who, learning the appropriate skills from male relatives, became successful hunters and trappers.42 Spindler says that in aboriginal Menomini culture, "a woman who fished well, raced well, hunted well, or danced like a man was highly respected." She refers to such a woman as a deviant who chose to "perform a wide range of male activities which might appeal to her" rather than to stay "at home, performing women's tasks, and listening by the hour to the tales of her grandmother." In recent years, she adds, women have continued to fill male roles, such as judge, advisory council members, political offices, and consultants in the mill office.43 Thus, these North American Indian women are depicted as having deviated from the feminine lifestyle to adopt the masculine style. They do so largely for pragmatic reasons, and some women achieve great success in the male role. In more advanced, agricultural societies, female trading activities have provided women with economic autonomy and, in some cases, with a significant power base. Women traders predominate in West Africa, the non-Hispanic Caribbean, and parts of mainland Latin America. Ester Boserup suggests an association between female farming and female trade. She says that where market trade is dominated by men, men do most of the agricultural work. On the other hand, she says, "where women are actively engaged in producing the crops, and particularly when they are farmers on their own account, they also take the crops to the market where they may also sell articles which they have not produced themselves. 1144 Many exceptions to this generalization can be cited. Boserup notes that Vietnamese men regard trade as debasing for men and think that women are more economical and thrifty. Philippine men regard themselves as being too sensitive for the coarse language and aggressive behavior necessary in trading activities and let their wives handle small-scale market trade, leaving large-scale trade to foreigners.45 In a survey of the role of women as traders, Sidney Mintz notes that who trades may be related to "civil security" and to which sex produces the marketable commodity. For example, Afikpo Igbo women, who unlike Igbo women of midwestern Nigeria do not enjoy equal status. with men, are discouraged from engaging in long-distance trade due to lack of "civil security." Afikpo Igbo men engage in long-distance trade, leaving women to run the internal market system in which they market their agricultural produce. An important economic innovation, increasing the capacity of Afikpo Igbo women to deal as equals with men, was the introduction of cassava processing and cultivation, apparently from Yoruba groups of Western Nigeria. Since men would only grow yams, and all other crops were cultivated by women, cassava cultivation fell to women. Men rejected cassava cultivation as beneath them. Control over the production and marketing of cassava, which gained rapid acceptance as a subsistence crop, became a major source of economic independence for women. Mintz cites Ottenberg, who comments on the reaction of women to cassava cultivation:
Nowadays women do not care if the husband does not give them any food, for they can go to the farm and get cassava. If a woman has any money she buys [rents] land and plants cassava. The year after she does this she can have a crop for cassava meal, which she can sell and have her own money. Then she can say, "What is man? I have my own money! 1146
Thus, female trading activities may be inspired by events surrounding Europeanization. In a lengthy description of Haitian marketing, which is monopolized by women, Mintz suggests that Haitian women took over marketing because men were in danger of conscription by Haiti's military regimes after independence in 1804. At least as important, he remarks, was the gradual accumulation of land by an expanding peasantry and the concentration of males in agricultural production. The acquisition of land may h;ave been "land enough to free women from cultivation but not land enough to produce a yield sufficiently large to make it profitable for the peasant cultivator to go regularly to market himself. 1147 Full-time Haitian market women are not restricted by familial obligations or by rigid patterns of male authority. Many Haitian market women are single or live in common-law relationships that permit them maximum mobility. These women are nomadic and their husbands remain sedentary. Many of the most active rural trading women are away from their homes for 4 days in 7. It has been said "that some Haitian farmers are left at such a loss by their marketer wives' absence that they 'fast stoically for two or three days' until their spouses return."48 Though market women may use their profits to help their husbands' agricultural efforts, Mintz says that these husbands have no recognized claim on their wives' capital.49 To conclude, female economic power is sometimes a result of a sexual division of labor in which women achieve self-sufficiency and establish an independent control sphere. This sphere need not be supported or legitimized by a system of magico-religious or legal tides. However, in the absence of such tides, female power is more vulnerable to change. This can be seen in female trading, especially in the face of "Westernization." Mintz notes that the traditional predominance of female traders in Africa, for example, is threatened by the opportunities available to men to expand commercial activities 'n the European economy and by the exclusion of women from export commodity activity.50 Similarly, in Haiti there are upper limits to the expansion of female trading activities because the larger Haitian economy is male dominated and controlled, giving women little or no opportunity to reinvest their capital in new forms of production. 51 The effects of Western culture on the public power and authority of tribal women are examined in more detail in the next chapter.
The ascribed and achieved bases for female public power and authority and increasing technological complexity
The previous discussion of the bases for female economic and political power and authority can be related to the cultural configurations described in Chapters 3 and 4. In these chapters the discussion focused on environmental circumstances leading to an inner/plant as opposed to an outer/animal cultural configuration. Feminine or couple origin symbolism was associated with plant economies, whereas masculine symbolism was associated with animal economies. Since feminine symbolic principles are more evident in plant than in animal economies, we would expect a corresponding greater representation of women in the secular power activities of plant economies. This expectation is supported by the data presented in Table 6. 1. Females wield political and economic power in a higher proportion of plant than animal economies.
The data presented in Table 6.1 show, however, that in the more advanced plant economies females are less likely to wield such power, just as feminine origin symbolism is less likely to be represented in these economies, as was shown 'm Chapter 3 (see Table 3.5). Thus, technological complexity appears to inhibit the expression of feminine political, economic, and symbolic power. These facts can be interpreted in several ways. First, there is Eleanor Leacock's argument that in foraging and pre-colonial simple agricultural societies, the sexes were equal and women functioned publicly in making economic and social decisions. Drawing on propositions advanced by Engels, Leacock argues that with increased technological specialization, production for consumption changes to production of commodities for exchange. The latter form of production, she says, takes the direct control of produce out of the hands of the producers and creates new economic ties that undermine the collectivity of joint households. Women lose control of their production because they are relegated to individual households, where they become the private dispensers of services and producers of children. This process, Leacock says, was thwarted where women "were organized to maintain and protect their rights. Confining her discussion to Africa, Ester Boserup presents a similar argument in saying that the simultaneous introduction by Europeans of intensive agricultural techniques and cash crops undermined traditional female farming and, hence, female control of production. Although women continued to cultivate food crops in some societies, Boserup says, this activity was no longer accorded the same social significance. The prestige of men was enhanced because they were introduced to the technology of the colonial society and became the intermediaries between the old and the new traditions. Where men were recruited into industry and women remained the primary producers for village households, female production did not necessarily mean female economic power. As men became more dependent on the colonial economy, women, in turn, became more dependent on men. Thus, as Kay Martin and Barbara Voorhies say in their summary of Boserup's argument, "As males begin to consistently exchange goods and services for part or all of the domestic necessities, the cultivative labor of women diminishes in scope and importance. "53
These arguments are compelling and to a large degree correct, as will become evident in the discussion of the effect of colonialism on traditional female power in the next chapter. However, p these arguments do not explain why women hold political and economic power or authority in 53% of the advanced agricultural societies (see Table 6. 1). Leacock, Boserup, and Martin and Voorhies do not distinguish between the ascribed and achieved bases for female public power. The introduction of cash crops or intensive agricultural techniques surely must have a differential impact on secular female status, depending on whether this status is ascribed or achieved. Where female power is a natural right accorded women and part of a long-standing cultural configuration, it is less likely that technological complexity will greatly undermine the importance of women. In these kinds of societies the organization by women to protect their rights is facilitated by cultural tradition. On the other hand, in societies where women have traditionally achieved power, it is more likely that technological complexity will have the effect described by Leacock and Boserup. If female power is related to feminine symbolism and in situ cultural development, we can assume that the authority of women is an integral part of the fabric of a people's social identity and, as such, less easily destroyed by colonial influence. If females live in a world where power is determined by might as opposed to right, it seems reasonable to suppose that the outside influence that disturbs the relative access of males and females to scarce or valued resources will have a corresponding effect on the relative balance of power between males and females. In some cases the balance of power may shift in favor of females. This happened in some areas of Africa where the outlawing of warfare by colonial administrations gave women greater opportunity for trade and, hence, access to wealth than their husbands and brothers had.54 In most cases, however, in the absence of a historical tradition extolling the right of women to control, it is logical to assume that women will lose access to strategic resources in the face of increased technological complexity for the reasons advanced by Leacock and Boserup. The data of this study support these suggestions. First, Leacock is right that women are more likely to function publicly in making economic and social decisions in foraging than in non-foraging societies.
Women enjoy economic and political power or authority in 67% of the foraging societies of this study as compared with 52% of the non-foraging societies (see Table 6.2). The dimension of symbolism does appear to affect the impact of technological complexity. Among the more technologically advanced non-foragers, women are more likely to hold economic and political power or authority if feminine symbolic principles (in origin stories) are also present (see Table 6.2). A long and stable association with one place is also important. Women play a more prominent role in societies described either as "aboriginal" to the area or as having "migrated long ago" than they do among peoples believed to be recent migrants to an area (see Table 6.3).
Migration clearly has a negative effect on the expression of female power and authority in many societies (see Table 6.3). However, as the following chapters argue, the experience of migration, like technological complexity, has a differential impact on peoples with a tradition of ascribed female power as compared with peoples without such a tradition. To conclude, women exercise economic and political power in the majority of foraging societies. In gathering and fishing societies especially, women wield secular power. 'Technological complexity is likely to undermine the political and economic autonomy of women if the traditional sex-role plan does not incorporate feminine symbolic principles. Ancient metaphors for female power give women a basis upon which to organize to protect their rights during social disruption. Sometimes, in the face of unrelenting external pressure, such as that exerted by a male-dominated colonial power, the traditional symbols that define the women's world may fall. As people combat such outside influences, the power of women may disintegrate as new metaphors for sexual identities replace the old. Some examples of the effect of European colonialism on the women's world are presented in the next chapter.
The dynamics of male dominance and sexual inequality
"Men stand superior to women in that God hath preferred the one over the other ... Those whose perverseness ye fear, admonish them and remove them into bed-chambers and beat them; but if they submit to you then do not seek a way against them." Sura 4:34, The Quran
"Every attitude, emotion, thought, has its opposite held in balance out of sight but there all the time. Push any one of them to an extreme, and . . . over you go into its opposite." Doris Lessing, The Four-gated City, p. 601
The bases for male dominance
Sex-role plans are part of the system of meanings by which a people explain their success, come to terms with their fears, enshrine their past, and stamp themselves with a sense of "people-hood." The unique identity people weave for themselves, the cup they mold from which to drink of life, mediates sexual identities. Hence, sex roles must be viewed as an interdependent part of the logico-meaningful system that defines and gives direction to a people's life. If this system of meanings develops in the absence of forces threatening social survival, women wield economic and political power or authority and the power relationship between the sexes is balanced. If the system of meanings that defines sexual identities is threatened by internal or external forces, meanings may be recombined, with the result that sexual identities are revised or new ones fabricated. If the whole complex of traditional roles is undermined, people will fight as if they were struggling to hold on to life itself. As the Igbo women said in the aftermath of the women's war, (twe are all dying." When the cup of life that defines the male world is broken, men organize to protect their traditional rights, as the Igbo women organized to protect theirs. Sometimes the struggle against hostile forces includes controlling and manipulating women as if they were objects in a game played only by men. The circumstances under which men attempt to make women pawns in their struggle are discussed in this chapter. As will be seen, however, women do not always accept subordination by men.
Male dominance: mythical and real Anthropologists have proposed various, partially overlapping definitions of male dominance. Ernestine Friedl defines male dominance as "a situation in which men have highly preferential access, although not always exclusive rights, to those activities to which the society accords the greatest value, and the exercise of which permits a measure of control over others."Friedl's definition is more specific than the one employed by William Divale and Marvin Harris in their discussion of the "male supremacist complex." These authors define male dominance in terms of an "Institutionalized complex" consisting of "asymmetrical frequencies of sex-linked practices and beliefs," such as post-marital residence, descent I ideology, form of marriage, bride price, the sexual division of labor, and sex roles in leadership.2 Thus, Divale and Harris assume that any social institution or practice that is oriented to the male principle implies domination by men. The definition of male dominance used here is more narrow. Male dominance is restricted in this study to the two general types of behaviors that have been described in previous chapters. First, there is the exclusion of women from political and economic decision making. Second, there is male aggression against women, which is measured here by the following five traits: the expectation that males should be tough, brave, and aggressive; the presence of men's houses or specific places where only men may congregate; frequent quarrelling, fighting, or wife beating; the institutionalization or regular occurrence of rape; and raiding other groups for wives. The presence of all five traits in a society indicates a high degree of male aggression; the absence of all five indicates that male aggression is weakly developed@ The extent to which traits measuring male aggression and female power overlap in some societies is shown in Table 8.1. Twenty-eight percent of the societies in which females wield political and economic power or authority are characterized by the extremes of male aggression. Looking at the societies in which females have economic control but no political power, it can be seen that over half (53%) are prone to male aggression. The Mundurucu fit into the latter category: Women enjoy economic autonomy and males display aggression against women. Despite efforts by men to control them by force, Mundurucu women neither accept nor agree with the male assessment of their inferior status. The relation between the Mundurucu sexes, Murphy and Murphy say, is not, then, one of simple domination and submissiveness, but one of ideological dissonance and real opposition. 114
The Mundurucu case illustrates that male aggression against is not necessarily joined with female passivity. In some societies it is expected that women will fight back. In others, it is assumed that women will adopt the submissive role. The following quote from the Quran, for example, codifies real male dominance and female subordination: "Men stand superior to women in that God hath preferred the one over the other . . . Those whose perverseness ye fear, admonish them and remove them into bed-chambers and beat them; but if they submit to you then do not seek a way against them. "5 The frequency (see Table 8. 1) with which female economic or political power coexists with male aggression against women shows that the Mundurucu sex-role plan is not unusual. In discussing the bases for male dominance, it is essential to distinguish male aggression against women from the exercise by women of political and economic power. Where the former exists in the presence of the latter, the term mythical male dominance will be employed to describe the relationship between the sexes. Where males turn aggression against women and/or women are excluded from economic and political decision making, the relationship between the sexes will be defined as unequal. Finally, where males do not display aggression against women and women exercise political and economic authority or power, the relationship between the sexes will be defined as equal. Employing these criteria as guidelines, the relationship between the sexes is classified as equal in 32% of the societies of this study and unequal in 28% (see Table 8.2). The remaining 40% of the societies either fit the criteria expressive of "mythical" male dominance or represent cases in which women exercise economic but no political power.6 The notion of "mythical" male dominance was adopted from Susan Carol Rogers's discussion of the "myth of male dominance in peasant societies. Rogers gives examples of peasant societies in which there is a balance between formal male authority and informal female power. She argues that a non-hierarchical power relationship between the categories "male" and "female" is maintained by "the acting out of a 'myth' of male dominance." The myth of male dominance, she says, is expressed "in patterns of public deference toward men, as well as their monopolization of positions of authority and prestige." She shows, however, that males do not actually dominate, nor do males or females literally believe males to be dominant.
The perpetuation of the myth, she says, is in the interests of both peasant women and men, because it gives the latter the appearance of power and control over all sectors of village life, while at the same time giving to the former actual power over those sectors of life in the community which may be controlled by villagers.117 A claim for nearly universal sexual asymmetry could be made if mythical male dominance is defined as a form of sexual asymmetry. However, if mythical male dominance is understood as representing a form of balanced sexual opposition, as Rogers argues and as I have argued for societies like that of the Mundurucu, such a claim is unwarranted. The criteria for classifying societies as sexually equal deserves comment in light of the universal sexual asymmetry argument. Louise Lamphere, who articulates the latter position, defines sexual equality as a situation "in which all men and women (regardless of social group or strata) could and actually did make decisions over the same range of activities and people, that is, exercise the same kinds of control" (emphasis mine). Sexual inequality, she says, would be a situation "where there were some decisions which women could not and did not make, some activities from which they were excluded, and some resources which they did not control."8 By this definition, in all human societies men are unequal in some respects and women are unequal in others. There is no society I know of in which the sexes give equal energy to exactly the same activities and decisions. Nor are there many societies in which both sexes have the same access to the same resources. My position regarding the definition of sexual equality falls in what Lamphere defines as the "complementary but equal" argument, which she attributes to Alice Schlegel, Jean Briggs, Carolyn Matthiasson, and others.9 Given Lamphere's definition of equality, it is not surprising that she disagrees with these authors. For example, referring to Schlegel's description of Hopi sexual balance, dualism, and interdependence, Lamphere interprets the exclusion of women from the Kachina cult and from participation in facets of male ceremonialism as evidence for sexual asymmetry, whereas Schlegel interprets the Hopi ceremonial cycle as bringing together the different functions equated with masculinity and femininity into an expression of unity. Schlegel's description of the function of the Hopi ceremonial cycle suggests sexual symmetry. Hopi male ceremonialism is more exclusive and more prevalent because of the double nature of men, as conceived by the Hopi, as opposed to the single nature of women. The duality of masculinity is represented in ceremonial symbolism expressing the male role as germinator, activator, and guardian of life, on the one hand, and the predatory nature of males needed in their roles as warriors on the other. These antithetical roles, she shows, are expressed in different ceremonies and associated with different men's fraternities. Hopi women have only one function: to give life. As Schlegel says, "Women, however, do not partake of this dual role of life givers and life destroyers; their single nature is to give and keep life."10 The Hopi ceremonial cycle contrasts the double nature of men with the single nature of women, and in so doing ceremonies appear to be more male than female oriented. However, women play a vital role in these ceremonies. They grind the sacred cornmeal, the symbol of natural and spiritual life and a necessary ingredient in almost all ceremonies. Women can and will refuse to play their appointed role in male ceremonies as a way of exercising veto power over male political decisions."
Thus, Hopi sexes do not participate in the same way in Hopi ceremonial life, nor do they participate in the same way in Hopi social life. However, the interdependence between the sexes shows that both are required for the functioning of the whole in a way not found in sexually unequal societies, where males may independently conduct public social and ceremonial affairs. It is clear that Lamphere and Schlegel employ different definitions of equality. One uses equality in the sense of sameness, the other uses equality in the sense of interdependence and balance. Since equality can mean both, perhaps the solution would be to employ an altogether different label, such as sexual symmetry.
The correlates of male dominance and sexual inequality
Male dominance is associated with increasing technological complexity, an animal economy, sexual segregation in work, a symbolic orientation to the male creative principle, and stress. Table 8.3 shows that the sexes are most likely to be equal in gathering, fi'shfrig, and shifting cultivation economies. The sexes tend to be unequal in animal husbandry societies. The intermediate category of male dominance (which includes mythical male dominance) is prevalent among advanced agriculturalists, hunters, and horticulturalists. Table 8.4 shows that feminine or couple origin symbolism is more frequently found in sexually equal than in sexually unequal societies. This table also shows that sexual segregation is positively associated with male dominance and sexual integration is-negatively associated with male dominance. Male dominance is significantly associated with environmental and-historical conditions, suggesting that the dominance of women is a response to stress. The results displayed in Table 8.5 show that in favorable environments and in autochthonous cultural conditions, sexual equality (or symmetry) flourishes, whereas in unfavorable environments or in the face of cultural disruption (measured by the experience of recent migration), mythical male dominance or sexual inequality prevails. For nearly three-fourths of the sexually equal societies (71 %), migration is reported as occurring very early," "long ago," or it is said that the people are "aboriginal to the area." Approximately the same proportion of sexually unequal societies (70%) are reported as being recent arrivals in their area within the last 100-150 years or the people are said to be expansionist oriented. In support of the importance of a favorable environment (as measured by the nature of the food supply), Table 8.5 shows also that sexually equal societies are less likely to be faced with periods of famine than sexually unequal societies. Other sources of stress related to male dominance are endemic warfare and chronic hunger (see Table 8.6).
Anthropological explanations for male dominance
In recent years anthropologists have paid considerable attention to the etiology of male dominance. Several explanations that have been offered are supported by the results discussed in the preceding section. These explanations and others are reviewed here before addressing what seems to me one of the most important questions of this study: Why does the human solution to stress elevate males to a position of dominance and not females? Marvin Harris presents one answer to this question when he argues that male supremacism is caused by an imbalance between protein sources and population density. Female infanticide, he says, occurs with greater frequency in regions of protein deficiency because of the need to produce hunters and warriors to compete for the available protein supplies. This slows population growth. The resulting shortage of marriageable women, however, requires men to take them from hostile groups. Polygyny, the mark of a successful and powerful hunter and warrior, exacerbates the shortage of women and, hence, the competition for women. A cycle of violence is established which, Harris argues, supplies the key for understanding the etiology of male supremacism.
Male dominance and sexual inequality
According to Harris, male supremacist institutions arise as a "by-product of warfare, of the male monopoly over weapons, and of the use of sex for the nurturance of aggressive male personalities." Warfare "is not the expression of human nature, but a response to reproductive and ecological pressures. Therefore, male supremacy is no more natural than warfare. "12 Harris argues that male supremacism is a result of the male monopoly over weapons, but Ernestine Friedl emphasizes the greater control men have over strategic resources because men are the hunters and the expendable sex in activities endangering lives. Friedl argues that among foragers men have greater control than women over the extra-domestic distribution and exchange of valued goods and services because of the male monopoly on hunting large game. Among shifting agriculturalists, she says, men have this control because of the male monopoly on the clearing of land and its allocation. Women do not hunt large game because of the difficulties of carrying burdens, food, or children while searching for the game. Men rather than women clear land because new lands often border territories of other peoples with whom warfare poses a potential threat. Warfare, she argues, is primarily the responsibility of males because "a population can survive the loss of men more easily than that of women." Thus, men, by virtue of their control of warfare and land allocation, "are more deeply involved than women in economic and political alliances which are extra-domestic and which require for their maintenance the distribution and exchange of goods and services."13 Friedl concludes that a degree of male dominance exists in all known societies if male dominance is defined as the measure of control over others accorded men because of their preferential access to valued activities. 14 Nothing in the results displayed in this chapter contradicts either Harris or Friedl. Male dominance is associated with warlikeness and ecological stress, as Harris suggests. Friedl's argument that male dominance is characteristic of foragers is correct for those foragers who rely mainly on hunting. Her argument does not apply to foragers relying mainly on gathering (see Table 8.3). What she has to say about the greater expendability of men is consistent with the discussion Presented in Chapter 4. Her definition of male dominance excludes consideration of the interdependence of the male and female worlds. Although she recognizes the ways in which men control people and resources, Friedl does not recognize the ways in which women exercise power and control. Sherry Ortner argues for universal male dominance on ideational rather than materialist grounds. Women are associated with nature, she says, because a woman's body and its functions are more involved more often with "species life" in contrast to 11 man's physiology which frees him more completely to take up the projects of culture." Following Simone de Beauvoir, Ortner contends that although a "woman's body seems to doom her to mere reproduction of life; the male, in contrast, lacking natural creative functions, must . . . assert his creativity externally, 'artificially,' through the medium of technology and symbols." In addition, male activities involving the destruction of life are given more prestige than the female's ability to create life. In the words of de Beauvoir, "It is not in giving life but in risking life that man is raised above the animal; that is why superiority has been accorded in humanity not to the sex that brings forth but to that which kills."15
Ortner's analysis strikes a responsive chord in those who have no knowledge of the superior and supernatural importance attached to the creation of life in societies like those of the Iroquois, Hopi, Dahomeans, and Ashanti, to mention but a few. In Western society, or in any society dominated by the outer/animal configuration, Ortner's analysis appears particularly applicable. However, with more thought one begins to wonder. Do all societies make a distinction between nature and culture? What about the instances in which men are associated with animals and women with "a civilizing influence"? For example, the Dahomeans are said to have been concerned about their animal-oriented cults because humans were giving birth to animals; thus they adopted the nature and dual-sex-oriented cult of Mawu-Lisa because it enabled them to give birth to humans (see discussion in Chapter 3). "Even in American culture," as Susan Carol Rogers points out in a critical analysis of Ortner's position, "women are by no means always associated with nature!" American sexual imagery portrays men as lustful and animalistic, subdued by the more responsible and civilized woman. The idea of rowdy, anti-social males who would revert to animality in the absence of the "gentler sex" can be traced far back in Western thought. 16 Harris, Friedl, and Ortner assume universal sexual asymmetry for different reasons. Other anthropologists begin their discussion of male dominance by pointing out that prior sexual egalitarianism was displaced by male dominance. In addition to the work of Eleanor Leacock, who has argued this point longer than any other modern anthropologist, the research of Kay Martin and Barbara Voorhies is relevant. Martin and Voorhies's argument for the conditions associated with feminine and masculine forms of social structure is remarkably similar to the viewpoint advanced here for the bases of male dominance and female power. These authors contend that descent and residence rules oriented to the maternal line are adaptive in favorable environments where conquest has not subjugated peoples, whereas descent and residence rules oriented to the paternal line are adaptive where resources are scarce or 'A,here populations have been subjugated by "patrilineal invaders."17 "While matrilineal structures are accommodating and integrative," Martin and Voorhies say, "patrilineal ones are acquisitive and internally divisive." The accommodating nature of matrilineal forms results from the dispersion of related men due to the practice of matrilocality, a practice that promotes widespread cooperation and coordination of groups. The latter form of organization, I would add, encourages integrative political structures, such as the Ashanti and Iroquois confederacies. Because patrilineality and pat 'locality consolidate related men, this form of social organization promotes stable political systems in circumstances where competition for scarce resources is the basis for sociocultural survival or expansion. 18 Martin and Voorhies imply that patrilineality is more likely to be associated with sexual inequality and matrilineality with sexual equality. Based on the societies of this study, these authors are correct. Fifty-two percent of the matrilineal societies as compared to 19% of the patrilineal societies are sexually equal (see Table 8.7). Similarly, 50% of the matrilocal societies as compared with 21% of the strictly patrilocal societies are sexually equal (see Table 8.7). Table 8.7 shows that there are many fewer matrilineal and matrilocal societies which has been amply documented by previous cross-cultural studies. 19 Martin and Voorhies attribute the low frequency of matrilineal systems in the ethnographic present to their replacement by more expansive, exploitative patrilineal systems. They note the change from matrilineal to patrilineal forms over wide regions of Africa documented by George P. Murdock. They refer to the example of the Tumbuka, who before 1780 "resembled most of the neighboring tribes in adhering to matrilineal descent, inheritance, and succession, in requiring matri-local bride-service rather than a bride-price, and in permitting an ultimate shift to avunculocal residence," according to Murdock. Between 1780 and 1800 the Tumbuka came under the influence of "patrilineal invaders." Around 1855, the Tumbuka were subjugated by new rulers "with even stronger patrilineal institutions."
"In consequence of their influence," Murdock says, "the Tumbuka abandoned even nominal bride-service, adopted the full-fledged South African bridepiece, or lobola, substituted the eldest son for the younger brother as the preferred heir and successor, and transformed what had originally been matrisibs into indubitable exogamous patrisibs."20 From this and other examples, Martin and Voorhies conclude that the replacement of matrilineal systems "by more expansive exploitative ones, has occurred widely in the primitive world." Matrilineal systems are under-represented in the ethnographic present because "the ecological adaptations and niches that this type of organization fosters and sustains have all but disappeared in the modern world. "21 If there has been a widespread transition from female-centered or sexually equal social systems to male-centered or sexually unequal systems, as Martin and Voorhies and Leacock suggest, one wonders how the transition may have come about in everyday behavior. Some of the ways by which male dominance supersedes female power have been discussed in previous chapters, and other ways will be discussed in the next chapter. The myth of male dominance is one way in which the sexes deal with changing circumstances. According to Rogers, the myth of male dominance enables women to retain control of their own sphere, which in the case of the peasant societies she describes is the central unit of the community and the only sphere over which villagers have much control. 22 Mythical male dominance represents a waystation where opposing and conflicting sexual power principles may coexist. Rogers describes the kinds of conditions that would, logically, cause a shift favoring the male or female end of the power spectrum. She says that if the bases for female power are retained and the activities by which men express authority are lost, women's power will increase and the myth of male dominance will no longer be expressed. If, however, the reverse occurs, male dominance can become a reality, as happens when the center of female power vanishes, women become more dependent on men, and males retain their access to formal rights and duties. The system can collapse completely, with neither sex achieving dominance over the other, if neither sex no longer depends on the other or if either sex is forced to recognize publicly that men are not actually dominant.23
From the native's point of view
In light of the variety of anthropological views regarding the development of male dominance, it is interesting to discover that in many societies explanations for "rule by men" exist. These explanations are found in stories recorded by anthropologists in many parts of the world that tell about the time when females ruled and men were forced to seize power from women. Usually the reasoning behind the male rebellion against women is female tyranny or gross incompetence. Women are depicted as the source of unbearable stress and men as being forced to dominate women in order to combat oppression, which is perceived in gigantic proportions. For example, there is a South American tale about the time "before the Giants wandered through the woods with their heads above the treetops," when "all the forest was evergreen . . . the Sun and Moon walked the earth as man and wife, and many of the great sleepy mountains were human beings." Women were powerful and men "lived in abject fear and subjection," because even though men had "bows and arrows with which to supply the camp with meat," only women had the power "to bring sickness and even death to all those who displeased them." Later, in the mythical sequence of events, the men decide to end the tyranny by killing all women; "there ensued a great massacre, from which not one woman escaped in human form." When the young girl children, untouched by the killing frolic, matured, they replaced the wives who had been killed. In order to maintain the upper hand, men instituted a secret male society and "banished forever the women's lodge." Women were not allowed to participate in the activities of the male society under penalty of death .24 This myth can be interpreted as a fantasized explanation for the disorder following Europeanization. The Giants who walk with their heads above the treetops symbolize something that is out of order a powerful force that stalks the land. Before they came, life was more easily meshed with nature and women were more powerful. The coming of the Europeans to the part of South America where this myth was recorded could easily be perceived in these terms. The Europeans introduced the horse and musketry, causing drastic changes in the way Indians lived. Slaughter and massacre were not limited to conflict between Europeans and Indians. Indians raided other groups for horses, captives, and wives. In this tale, it is women who become the symbols of oppression, not Europeans or warring Indians. In the tale, men win the struggle against the oppressive force by subjugating women. Perhaps the struggle between men and women is a metaphor for the struggle between Indians and Europeans. In other tales of former female power, the source of oppression is conceived differently but the response is the same: Men seize power from incompetent or power-hungry females. The Kikuyu of Africa have a tale that explains that men were forced to seize power because women became too domineering and ruthless in their capacity as rulers. The Mundurucu tale (see Chapter 2) explains male dominance as resulting from women's inability to hunt meat to feed the trumpet (i.e., fertility) spirits. Male dominance in a tale recorded from the Bambara of Africa is said to have been established in order to bring sanity into a world tom by the actions of a jealous female spirit and the power-hungry exploits of her male counterpart. In this tale order is introduced into the world through the establishment of a supreme being who controls sex antagonism. What can happen if the tension between male and female is not resolved is shown by a tale recorded from the Jivaro of South America. In this tale the origin of just about everything is based on the antagonism between male and female spirits. When the tension between the sexes becomes intolerable, the embodiment of war is introduced, whose purpose is to ensure that the various factions generated from the antagonism between male and female remain in perpetual conflict.25 Generally, myths of former female power are found in societies in which there is both male dominance and female power. This is true for the Mundurucu, Bambara, Kikuyu, and Fore. In all of these societies women have considerable autonomy. Naomi Quinn points out that male status among the Mundurucu is insecure and thus their ideology of dominance is defensive and uneasy.26 Myths of former female power provide men with a rationale for segregating themselves from women and a reason for dominating "tyrannical" women. Wherever men perceive women in such terms, it is likely that women have considerable informal power. Thus, myths of former female power mirror the paradoxical relationship between the sexes that actually exists.
Male dominance: part of a cultural configuration or a solution to stress
In this chapter a distinction has been drawn between mythical and real male dominance. Real male dominance is likely to be found where survival rests more on male than on female actions. It is easy to imagine dependence on the male world evolving when expansion, migration, or social stress puts men in the position of fighting literally and figuratively to maintain an old or to forge a new sociocultural identity in the face of pressures threatening to destroy this identity. In such circumstances, both men and women work to protect the larger identity and supporting world view that mediates sexual identities. For the sake of social and cultural survival, women accept real male domination. Their lives and those of their children may rest on their willingness to do so. The Cheyenne, and probably the Hebrews, represent examples of male dominance in the face of real threats to sociocultural survival.27 These are the kinds of societies where the greater access of men to valued resources gives men a measure of control over others. Male dominance as conceived by Friedl applies in these instances. Women willingly accept domination in exchange for protection and food. Mythical male dominance is less easy to comprehend. First, the bases for mythical male dominance are not self-evident. Why do men perceive women as tyrannical and needing to be subjugated in the face of their own felt lack of power? "Why," I have been asked, "do women become the metaphorical lightning rod during times of stress and colonial disruption?" Why not men also? Answers to such questions are found in Marvin Harris's explanation for male supremacism. Another kind of answer is provided by the work of John and Beatrice Whiting, who argue that male aggression is motivated by the need to break a primary identity with powerful women. A boy who grows up in a household in which his mother and other adult women control the resources will envy the female status, covertly practice the female role, and develop what they call a "feminine optative identity." If, upon reaching adulthood, the boy discovers that his childhood view of the relative power of males and females was distorted, that the balance of power between the sexes favors men beyond the domestic sphere, the boy will develop "a strong need to reject his underlying female identity." This need will lead to "an over-determined attempt to prove his masculinity, manifested by a preoccupation with physical strength and athletic prowess, or attempts to demonstrate daring and valor, or behavior that is violent and aggressive. " 28 Thus, the Whitings contend that male dominance displays are a reaction to a perception of female power. Which answer one chooses to the question is ultimately a matter of individual taste. Harris has uncovered the external conditions that lead to male violence and the Whitings provide a framework for viewing the psychodynamics that may be involved. For reasons to be advanced in the next chapter, though I have no quarrel with these solutions to the puzzle of male aggression, I prefer a different approach.